Indonesia and the MDGs
I was asked by someone on Indonesia's achievements on MDGs yesterday, i was so stunned because it was so unexpected question, i have been thinking that i knew much about Indonesia's progress towards prosperity, but when question on MDG was shot, it was a bare proof that know nothing :)
But wait. I had been working for developmental organization for 4 years, roaming around in more than 6 economically-unprivilieged countries, so more and less, I will try my best to answer to the question on RI's achievements on MDGs.
According to Wikipedia:
"The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that all 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015.
2.1 Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger2.2 Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education2.3 Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women2.4 Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rate2.5 Goal 5: Improve maternal health2.6 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases2.7 Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability2.8 Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
Indonesia is moving positively toward their MDGs for 2015. Being the country whose economic growth is the 3rd fastest in the G20, Indonesia is in better position to achieve its MDGs goal. And the MDG indicators can be even be stringent for a better quality of life for the people, if Indonesia can maintain high and sustainable growth.
The nation’s success in development has resulted in various international awards. Progress in economic development over the last five years has enabled Indonesia to make progress in catching up with developed countries. Developed countries under the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have recognized and appreciated development progress in Indonesia. Therefore, along with China, India, Brazil and South Africa, Indonesia was invited to join the “enhanced engagement countries” group, or countries whose engagement with developed countries is increasingly enhanced.Since 2008 Indonesia has also joined the Group-20 or G-20, twenty countries controlling 85 percent of the world’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which has a very important and decisive role in shaping globaleconomic policies.
According to Indonesia National Planning Board (Bappenas), achievements have been made, such as :MDG 1 – The proportion of people having per capita income of less than US$1 a day has declined from 20.6 percent in 1990 to 5.9 percent in 2008.MDG 3 - Gender equality in all types and levels of education have almost been achieved as indicated bythe net enrollment ratios (APM) of girls to boys in SD/MI/Paket A and SMP/MTs/Paket B of 99. 73 and 101.99 respectively, and the literacy rate of women to men among 15-24 year olds of 99.85 in 2009.MDG 6 - The prevalence of tuberculosis decreased from 443 cases in 1990 to 244 cases per 100,000 populations in the year of 2009.
The MDG targets for which significant improvement has been demonstrated and which are expected to be achieved by 2015 (on-track) are as follows:
MDG 1 - The prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age decreased almost 50 percent from 31 percent in 1989 to 18.4 percent in 2007. The target of 15.5 percent by 2015 is estimated can beachieved.MDG 2 - The net enrollment rate for primary education has almost reached 100 percent and the literacyrate of the population reached 99.47 percent in 2009.MDG 3 - The net enrollment ratios (NER) of girls to boys in secondary education (SMA/MA/Package C) and higher education in 2009 were recorded to be 96.16 and 102.95 respectively. Thus, it is expected that the 2015 target of 100 can be achieved.MDG 4 - The mortality rate of children under-five years of age decreased from 97 per 1,000 live births in 1991 to 44 per 1,000 live births in 2007 and is expected to reach the target of 32 per 1,000 live births in 2015.MDG 8 - Indonesia has managed to develop open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial systems – as indicated by the positive trends in indicators related to trade and the national banking system. At the same time, significant progress has been made in reducing the ratio of foreign debt to GDP from 24.6 percent in 1996 to 10.9 percent in 2009. The Debt Service Ratio has also been reduced from 51 percent in 1996 to 22 percent in 2009.
The MDG targets which have shown a reasonable improvement but which still need hard work to be achieved are as follows:MDG 1 - Indonesia has raised the targets for poverty reduction and is committed to give special attention to reducing poverty levels as measured against the national poverty line from the level of 13.33 percent in 2010 to 8 to 10 percent in 2014.MDG 5 - The maternal mortality rate has fallen from 390 in 1991 to 228 per 100,000 live births in 2007. Hard work is needed to achieve the 2015 target of 102 per 100,000 live births.MDG 6 - The proportion of people with HIV/AIDS has increased, particularly among high risk groups such as injecting drug users and sex workers.MDG 7 - Indonesia has a high level of greenhouse gas emissions, but the country remains committed to increase forest cover, eliminate illegal logging and implement a policy framework to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 26 percent over the next 20 years. Moreover, currently only 47.73 percent of households have sustainable access to improved drinking water, and 51.19 percent of households have access to basic sanitation. Special attention is required to achieve the MDGs targets for Goal 7 by 2015.
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